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Level measurement - pool hydraulics

The term 'pool hydraulics' refers to the water circulation system in swimming pools. Good pool hydraulics guarantee the proper distribution of disinfectants. Hydraulics does not only include the economical skimmer system to remove water from the surface, but also the more effective overflow system in swimming pools. From this overflow system, the water is led by water jets over the edge of the pool into an overflow channel, from where it enters the overflow tank. This tank is designed in such a way that when the pool is in use, the tank can contain the amount of water being moved. When the pool is not in use, it has enough water stored for back washing. To prevent the filter pump in the backwash tank from running dry, there is always a level measurement in these tanks. This measure ensures that fresh water is added to the pool when there is too little water in it due to backwashing. Level measurement also activates the pump if there is too much water in the overflow tank. Level measurement can take place hydrostatically. Here the water is put under pressure. The higher the pressure, the higher the water level. This measurement is done with level sensors. JUMO has a wide range of level sensors in plastic and stainless steel with various connections and wiring options.

WATER - nature's finest

Welcome to the world of water from JUMO

Drinking water

In the Netherlands, an average of 123 litres of water is consumed per person per day (2017). This water is mainly used for showering, using the toilet and washing clothes. In total, 1.1 trillion (or 1,100,000,000) litres are consumed per year in the Netherlands (2007). Households account for 0.8 trillion litres of this, the rest is used by industry, agriculture and so on. Although there is generally sufficient water, the government is trying to reduce water consumption in order to protect the environment.

To obtain clean water, various disciplines work together. Not only in the field of drinking water, but also in the field of process water for industry, several parties work together. You can read here what is involved in the creation of drinking water, swimming pool water, pure water, cooling water and waste water. JUMO has been a reliable partner for water treatment for decades.

Water - The most important source of nutrition

Drinking water is the most important food source on earth, but where does our drinking water actually come from? In the Netherlands, water is produced all over the country by various water companies.

The treatment of our drinking water originates in spring water, surface water and groundwater. Spring water refers to water that comes from underground water sources from the earth. Surface water is extracted from standing or flowing bodies of water above the ground. Dam reservoir water, lakes and rivers are three types of surface water. Groundwater is part of the earth's natural water cycle. It is mainly produced by rainwater penetrating the soil and seeping into the aquifer. Before groundwater becomes drinking water, a number of important processing steps have to be carried out.

Saltwater

Desalination of water

According to UNESCO, drinking water supply is a major problem in many parts of the world and 97.5% of the water on our planet is salty. Because drinking water is limited, salty seawater is one of the main sources of our drinking water. Seawater desalination is the process of extracting salt from seawater for drinking and process water. An important element in seawater distillation plants is the reverse osmosis unit.

Salt water

Desalination of seawater

During reverse osmosis, seawater is passed through a semi-permeable membrane under high pressure. This membrane acts as a filter and only specific ions and molecules are able to pass through it. Because seawater has such a high salt content, a pressure of 60 to 80 bar is required. To ensure that this process is safe, the pressure must be monitored. JUMO has been supplying reliable pressure sensors for this application for many years.

Swimming water

Swimming is a popular pastime

Swimming is a popular pastime and a healthy one - at least as long as the water is clean. To ensure the water quality in swimming pools, continuous monitoring and inspection takes place. Various cleaning methods focus on keeping the water clean by killing and reducing microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. The measurement of various quantities during this process is of great importance. This means that the concentration of cleaning agents must be monitored.

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Swimmingwater

Filter system for cleaning

Every swimmer brings contaminants into the swimming pool water, such as bacteria, germs, cosmetic residues, etc. These substances, with a size between 0.1 and 0.001 micrometer, are dispersed in the pool water during swimming and are not directly visible to the human eye. In general, it is possible to remove these floating or suspended solids (up to 0.001 mm in size) from the pool water with effective filter systems.

Pool water cleaning unit

Swimmingwater

Use of flocculants

Using flocculants will cause the dirt particles to clump together into larger flocs, large enough to be collected by the filtration system. Aluminium and iron salts are often used in a flocculant so that the insoluble aluminium hydroxide forms a floc that will precipitate, removing the colloidal particles from the wastewater.

Cleaning process pool water - disinfection

The main purpose of this treatment is to kill or reduce the number of micro-organisms living in the water (bacteria, viruses, etc.). This process is called disinfection or sterilisation. The addition of chlorine, or chlorination, is the most common way to disinfect water. In practice, it is common to first prepare a solution of water containing chlorine gas or hyprochlorite, and then add a suitable quantity of this solution to the water to be disinfected.

During the treatment of the water, the goal is to form as few undesired by-products as possible during disinfection. To a certain extent, this can be influenced by controlling the conditions (amount of chlorine, temperature, pH value) at the time of disinfection.

Control of Dutch swimming pool water

All swimming pools in the Netherlands are strictly monitored for water quality. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has laid down these rules in the Swimming Facilities Hygiene and Safety Act and Decree (Whvbz and Bhvbz).

Level measurement

Pool hydraulics

The term "pool hydraulics" refers to the water circulation system in swimming pools. Good swimming pool hydraulics guarantee the correct distribution of disinfectants. Hydraulics not only includes the economical skimmer system to remove water from the surface, but also the more effective overflow system in swimming pools. From this overflow system, the water is led by water jets over the edge of the pool into an overflow channel, from where it enters the overflow tank. This tank is designed in such a way that when the pool is in use, the tank can contain the amount of water being moved. When the pool is not in use, it has enough water stored for back washing.

JUMO MAERA level sensors

Level measurement

Sensors for water level monitoring

To prevent the filter pump in the backwash water tank from running dry, these tanks are always level measured. This measure adds fresh water to the pool when there is too little water in it due to backwashing. Level measurement also activates the pump if there is too much water in the overflow tank. Level measurement can take place hydrostatically. Here the water is put under pressure. The higher the pressure, the higher the water level. This measurement is done with level sensors. JUMO has a wide range of level sensors in synthetic construction and stainless steel with various connections and wiring options.

Purewater

Consistently high product value

Pure water is highly purified water and a necessity in many different production processes.

For example, as a cleaning agent in the semiconductor industry or as a cleaning operation after the actual washing with detergents in the food industry and for cleaning and dilution purposes in the pharmaceutical industry.

pH measurement in pure water

In some applications, pH measurement in pure water is mandatory. However, the low conductivity and ionic strength of pure water cause technical problems in measuring the pH value. The solution is the refillable electrode from JUMO with KCl stock.

Conductivity measurement

Monitoring the quality of pure water using conductivity measurement is the most reliable method. A complete conductivity measurement chain consists of a pure water transmitter/controller, a conductivity sensor with integrated temperature sensor and a connecting cable. JUMO has digital technology for conductivity measurement.

With our pure water products, you have the option of precise cell constant indication, temperature compensation according to ASTMD 1125-95 and limit value monitoring according to USP (water conductivity <456>).

Pure water

In the pharmacy

The manufacture of pure water is one of the most important processes in the pharmaceutical industry. Without it, the production of most substances is impossible, as pure water is a prerequisite for ensuring the highest product quality standards. The quality of highly purified water (pure water, high purity water, water for injections, etc.) is described in various standards and recommendations, such as ASTM International (American Society For Testing and Materials), EP (Pharmacopoea Europaea, Ph. Eur.), USP (United States Pharmacopeia), and DIN or ISO standard.

Pure water

As cleaning product

Pure water is required in a wide range of production processes, such as a cleaning agent in the semiconductor industry, as a cleaning agent after the actual washing with cleaning agent in the food industry and for cleaning and dilution purposes in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the demand for pure water, process steps both upstream and downstream need to be identified. Common production processes include reverse osmosis, ion exchangers, ultrafiltration and electrochemical deionisation. Ion exchangers contain moving ions. The chemical composition allows for exchange with similarly charged particles.

Pure water

Ultrafiltration membrane process

Ultrafiltration is a typical membrane process. The membrane pores are very large for ultrafiltration. Particles larger than the openings in the membrane are thus separated. Electrochemical deionisation is another technique for creating pure water. when a voltage is applied across the anode and cathode, the anions and cations combine and the resulting ions are removed from the water stream by ion exchangers. In an electrical system with two poles or electrodes, we speak of cathode for the pole into which the electrons go. The opposite pole or electrode is called the anode.

Membrane

Cooling water

Keep it cool

Heat must be dissipated in many industrial plants. Water can be used for this purpose. So-called cooling water is used as a heat carrier and can be applied in various ways. For example, in air-conditioning installations, cylinder coolers of machines, condensation cooling, cooling of steel melting furnaces and as cooling of reactors in the chemical industry.

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Monitoring water quality

Wherever water or aqueous solutions are used as a refrigerant or additive for cooling, it is useful to check the water quality. This is because the cooling capacity of water can decrease due to evaporation or pollution. Evaporation or fouling will increase the concentration of salts and solids in the water, which will increase the conductivity. Therefore, it is important that cooling towers have relevant conductivity measurements. Disinfection The water circulation in a cooling tower must be treated with suitable disinfectants. The use of ozone (O3) is an alternative to disinfection. Ozone production is monitored and controlled via the redox potential of the cooling water. To measure the redox potential in ozone-bearing water, we recommend the use of JUMO electrodes with a gold head as active part. The JUMO dTRANS pH 02 can be used, for example, as an indicator and regulator. The inductive measurement method of the JUMO CTI-500 conductivity transmitter enables reliable monitoring of the cooling water in cooling towers. In addition, the individual sensor can be easily integrated into existing systems without any problems. In addition to analog technology, digital measurement technology is also available from JUMO.

Cooling water

Measurement of redox potential

The use of ozone (O3) is an alternative to disinfection. Ozone production is monitored and controlled via the redox potential of the cooling water. To measure the redox potential in ozone-bearing water, we recommend the use of JUMO electrodes with a gold head as active part. The JUMO dTRANS pH 02 can be used as indicator and regulator, for example. The inductive measuring method of the JUMO CTI-500 conductivity transmitter enables reliable monitoring of the cooling water in cooling towers.

JUMO dTRANS pH 02

Wastewater

Industrial wastewater

Industrial wastewater refers to wastewater generated by industrial production processes. For example, in the food, paper, chemical, textile and metal industries. The composition of industrial wastewater can vary considerably depending on the industry. Wastewater from the paper processing industry, for instance, contains organic components that are not easily degradable. In metal processing, we find oil, grease and heavy metals. Industrial wastewater must be cleaned before discharge. The treated water can be returned to the production process or discharged into the sewer.

Industrial wastewater

Municipal wastewater

Wastewater

Municipal wastewater

Municipal waste water is treated in sewage treatment plants. Biological, chemical and mechanical processes are used for this purpose. A treatment plant simulates the natural process in the waste water cycle. The organisms in the treatment plant take care of the decomposition of waste materials and can carry out their work in ideal conditions. Wastewater treatment is a biological process that is optimized by mechanical processes. For this application, JUMO has an extensive range of measuring and control equipment.

Waste water from galvanising processes

In a galvanising bath, objects made of base metals such as zinc or iron receive a protective finish. The coating may consist of chemical elements such as copper and nickel. The first wastewater treatment phase for this type of water is detoxification of cyanide and chromate. Detoxification takes place in a continuous flow system. Once this step has been taken, the next phase in the purification process takes place; neutralisation of precipitation, removal of precipitation products and removal of the sludge. The cleaned wastewater can now be discharged to the sewer.

pH measurement in electroplating installations

A pH value of at least 10 is required for cyanide detoxification. Chromate is removed from wastewater in the acidic range. Here pH measurement is used to monitor the electroplating baths and the detoxification process. JUMO has reliable equipment in its range for carrying out this precise task.



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